How To Calculate Tax In Nigeria

How to Calculate Tax in Nigeria

If you are a citizen or business owner in Nigeria, it is essential to have a good understanding of how to calculate tax. Taxes play a vital role in the economic growth of any country, and Nigeria is no exception. In this article, we will explore all you need to know about calculating tax in Nigeria.

Table of Contents

What is Tax?

Tax is a compulsory financial charge imposed by the government on individuals, businesses, and other entities to fund various public expenditures. Taxes are collected to fund projects such as infrastructure, education, healthcare, and social welfare programs.

Types of Taxes in Nigeria

There are various types of taxes in Nigeria, including:

Company Income Tax

Company Income Tax (CIT) is a tax imposed on the profits of companies registered in Nigeria. The current rate of CIT is 30%.

Value Added Tax

Value Added Tax (VAT) is a tax on the value added to goods and services at each stage of production and distribution. The current rate of VAT is 7.5%.

Personal Income Tax

Personal Income Tax (PIT) is a tax imposed on the income of individuals. The rate of PIT varies from state to state, with a minimum of 1% and a maximum of 24%.

Education Tax

Education Tax (ET) is a tax imposed on the profits of companies registered in Nigeria. The rate of ET is 2%.

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How to Calculate Tax

To calculate tax in Nigeria, you need to know the applicable tax rate and the taxable income. The taxable income is the income that is subject to tax after deductions and allowances have been made. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to calculate tax in Nigeria:

Determine your taxable income by subtracting allowable expenses from your total income.

Multiply your taxable income by the applicable tax rate. For example, if your taxable income is N2,000,000 and the tax rate is 10%, your tax liability will be N200,000.

If you have already paid some taxes during the year, subtract the amount from your tax liability to get the final amount you owe.

File your tax returns and pay the outstanding amount.

Tax Deductions and Allowances

In Nigeria, there are various deductions and allowances that you can claim to reduce your taxable income. Some of the deductions and allowances include:

Pension Contributions

Contributions to a pension scheme are tax-deductible up to a maximum of 10% of your gross income.

National Housing Fund Contributions

Contributions to the National Housing Fund are tax-deductible up to a maximum of 2.5% of your gross income.

Life Insurance Premiums

Premiums paid on life insurance policies are tax-deductible up to a maximum of 20% of your gross income.

Children’s Education Expenses

Expenses incurred on the education of your children are tax-deductible up to a maximum of N100,000 per child.

Medical Expenses

Medical expenses incurred by you or your dependents are tax-deductible up to a maximum of 10% of your gross income.

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Calculating tax in Nigeria can seem daunting, but with the right knowledge and guidance, it can be a simple process. Understanding the different types of taxes, calculations, and deductions is essential to ensure compliance with the law and avoid penalties. By following the steps outlined in this article, you can calculate your tax liability accurately and with confidence.


What is the deadline for filing tax returns in Nigeria?
The deadline for filing tax returns in Nigeria is 31st March of the following year.

Can I claim tax deductions for donations to charity?
Ans: Yes, donations to charity are tax-deductible up to a maximum of 10% of your gross income.

What happens if I don't pay my taxes on time?
Ans: Failure to pay taxes on time can result in penalties and interest charges.

Is it possible to claim tax deductions for expenses incurred overseas?
Ans: No, tax deductions are only applicable for expenses incurred within Nigeria.

How can I get help with calculating my taxes?
Ans: You can seek assistance from a tax consultant or visit the Federal Inland Revenue Service website for guidance.