How To Farm Mushroom In Nigeria

How to Farm Mushroom in Nigeria

Mushroom farming has been a lucrative agricultural venture in Nigeria in recent times, with increasing demand for the product due to its nutritional and medicinal benefits. Besides, mushroom cultivation is an eco-friendly activity that requires minimal space, water, and energy, making it a sustainable source of income for small-scale farmers. In this article, we will explore the step-by-step process of mushroom farming in Nigeria, from selecting the right mushroom species to harvesting and marketing the product.

Understanding Mushroom Species

Before embarking on mushroom farming, it is essential to understand the different species and their growth requirements. The most common varieties of mushrooms grown in Nigeria are button, oyster, shiitake, and straw mushrooms. Each species has unique features that include growth temperature, humidity, and nutrient needs. For instance, button mushrooms thrive in a temperature range of 20-26°C and require high humidity levels of 70-80%. On the other hand, oyster mushrooms prefer a slightly higher temperature of 25-30°C and lower humidity of 60-70%. Therefore, farmers should identify the most suitable species for their climate and the market demand.

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Preparing the Growing Medium

Mushrooms grow on organic matter, which serves as their food source. The ideal growing medium for mushroom farming in Nigeria is a combination of agricultural wastes such as sawdust, rice straw, corn cobs, and poultry manure. The farming substrate should be pasteurized by heating to kill any pathogens and sterilized to eliminate contaminants. The substrate should be packed in a plastic bag or container and inoculated with mushroom spawn, which can be purchased from certified suppliers. The bags or containers should be kept in a dark, humid room to allow the mycelium to colonize the substrate.

Creating the Growing Environment

Mushrooms require specific environmental conditions for optimal growth and fruiting. The growing room should be well-ventilated but protected from direct sunlight, pests, and drafts. The ideal temperature range is 20-30°C, and humidity levels should be maintained at 70-80% for button mushrooms and 60-70% for oyster mushrooms. Farmers can achieve the required humidity by spraying water or using a humidifier. Additionally, farmers can install a heating system that uses sawdust, rice husks, or charcoal to maintain the temperature.

Monitoring the Growth Process

Mushroom farming requires close monitoring of the growth process to ensure optimal yields and quality. Farmers should inspect the growing substrate for any signs of contamination or mold growth, which can affect the mushroom yield. Additionally, the bags or containers should be turned regularly to allow even growth and prevent the formation of abnormal shapes. Farmers should also maintain a record of the growth process, including the inoculation date, harvest date, and yields, to track their progress and make adjustments where necessary.

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Harvesting and Storage

Mushrooms are ready for harvest when the caps are fully formed, but before they start to open. The best time to harvest is in the morning when the mushrooms are firm and fresh. Farmers should use a sharp knife to cut the stem just above the substrate, taking care not to damage the other mushrooms. After harvesting, farmers should sort the mushrooms based on size and quality and pack them in clean, dry containers. Mushrooms can be stored in a cool, dark place for up to a week or frozen for long-term storage.

Marketing the Product

Marketing is a crucial aspect of mushroom farming in Nigeria, as the demand for the product is high but the competition is stiff. Farmers can sell their mushrooms to local markets, supermarkets, restaurants, and health food stores. It is essential to package the mushrooms attractively and label them with the variety, date of harvest, and farm name. Additionally, farmers can create an online presence through social media platforms, e-commerce sites, and mushroom forums to reach a wider audience.


Mushroom farming is a profitable agricultural venture in Nigeria that requires minimal space and resources but yields high returns. Farmers can choose from different mushroom species and grow them on a substrate made of agricultural wastes. The growing environment should be well-ventilated, humid, and protected from contaminants, and the growth process should be closely monitored to ensure optimal yields and quality. After harvesting, farmers should sort and store the mushrooms appropriately and market them to local and online buyers. By following these steps, farmers can establish a successful mushroom farming enterprise in Nigeria, contributing to food security and economic growth.

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Q1: How much does it cost to start a mushroom farm in Nigeria?

A: The cost of starting a mushroom farm in Nigeria depends on the scale and location of the enterprise. Small-scale farmers can start with a budget of around ₦50,000 for substrate preparation, inoculation, and basic equipment. However, larger farms may require more investment in infrastructure, labor, and marketing.

Q2: Can mushrooms grow in all parts of Nigeria?

A: Yes, mushrooms can grow in all parts of Nigeria, provided the temperature and humidity requirements are met. The ideal temperature range for mushroom farming is 20-30°C, and the humidity levels should be maintained at 60-80%.

Q3: How long does it take for mushrooms to grow?

A: The growth cycle of mushrooms varies depending on the species and growing conditions. Generally, mushrooms take 2-4 weeks to colonize the substrate and another 1-2 weeks to fruit. However, some species such as shiitake and straw mushrooms may take longer to mature.

Q4: Can I use other organic materials besides agricultural wastes for mushroom farming?

A: Yes, other organic materials such as coffee grounds, coconut coir, and wood chips can be used as a substrate for mushroom farming. However, these materials may require different preparation methods and nutrient supplements.

Q5: Is mushroom farming a sustainable practice?

A: Yes, mushroom farming is a sustainable practice that contributes to environmental preservation and food security. Mushrooms require minimal space, water, and energy, and the farming substrate is made of agricultural wastes that would otherwise be discarded. Additionally, mushrooms are rich in nutrients and can be used as a meat substitute, reducing the environmental impact of animal agriculture.