How To Farm Rice In Nigeria

Table of Contents

How to Farm Rice in Nigeria

Rice farming in Nigeria is a profitable venture that has attracted many farmers in recent years. Rice is a staple food in Nigeria and its demand has been on the rise due to the increasing population. However, rice farming can be a challenging task for inexperienced farmers. This article will provide a comprehensive guide on how to farm rice in Nigeria.

Selecting the Right Land

The first step in rice farming is to select the right land for cultivation. The soil should be fertile and well-drained to allow for proper growth of rice. The land should be cleared of all weeds, trees, and stones, and plowed to a depth of at least 15 cm.

Choosing the Right Rice Variety

There are several rice varieties that can be grown in Nigeria, but the popular ones are Faro 44, Faro 52, and Faro 15. These varieties are suitable for the Nigerian climate and are resistant to pests and diseases.

Preparing the Seedbed

The next step is to prepare the seedbed. The seedbed should be levelled and moistened before planting the seeds. The seeds should be planted at a depth of 2-3 cm and spaced at least 20 cm apart. The seedbed should be regularly watered to ensure proper growth and development of the rice seedlings.

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Transplanting the Seedlings

After 21-30 days, the rice seedlings will be ready for transplanting. The seedlings should be carefully uprooted from the seedbed and transplanted into the main field. The spacing between the seedlings should be at least 20 cm. The main field should be flooded with water to a depth of 5-10 cm to allow for proper growth of the rice.

Fertilizing the Rice

Rice requires proper fertilization to ensure high yield. The recommended fertilizers for rice farming in Nigeria are NPK 15-15-15 and Urea. The fertilizers should be applied in three stages: during land preparation, at the time of transplanting, and after 30 days of transplanting.

Controlling Pests and Diseases

Rice is susceptible to pests and diseases, which can significantly reduce the yield. The common pests in rice farming are stem borers, rice bugs, and rice hoppers. The common diseases are rice blast, sheath blight, and bacterial leaf blight. The pests and diseases can be controlled through proper use of pesticides and fungicides.

Harvesting the Rice

Rice is ready for harvest after 4-5 months of planting. The rice should be harvested when the grains turn golden brown and the moisture content is less than 20%. The rice should be threshed and dried in the sun for at least three days.

Storing the Rice

The harvested rice should be properly stored to prevent damage and spoilage. The rice should be stored in a cool and dry place, away from pests and rodents. The storage facility should be well ventilated to prevent moisture build-up.

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Marketing the Rice

The final step in rice farming is marketing the rice. The rice can be sold to local markets, supermarkets, or exported to other countries. The farmer should consider the prevailing market prices before selling the rice to ensure maximum profit.


Rice farming in Nigeria can be a lucrative venture if done properly. The farmer should select the right land, choose the right rice variety, prepare the seedbed, transplant the seedlings, fertilize the rice, control pests and diseases, harvest and store the rice, and market the rice effectively. With proper planning and execution, rice farming can provide a steady source of income for Nigerian farmers.


  1. What is the best time to plant rice in Nigeria?

    • Rice is usually planted between March and April in Nigeria.
  2. How much does it cost to start rice farming in Nigeria?

    • The cost of starting rice farming in Nigeria varies, depending on the size of the farm and the inputs required. However, it can cost between N300,000 and N500,000 to start rice farming on a small scale.
  3. Can rice be grown in all parts of Nigeria?

    • Rice can be grown in all parts of Nigeria, but the yield may vary depending on the climatic and soil conditions.
  4. How long does it take for rice to mature?

    • Rice matures after 4-5 months of planting.
  5. What are the common pests in rice farming?

    • The common pests in rice farming are stem borers, rice bugs, and rice hoppers.