How To Farm Snail In Nigeria

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How to Farm Snail in Nigeria

Snail farming, also known as heliciculture, is a profitable business that has gained popularity in Nigeria in recent years. Snail meat is a delicious delicacy and is highly sought after, making the snail farming business lucrative. In this article, we will discuss how to farm snail in Nigeria and the necessary steps to take to ensure a successful snail farming business.

Understanding Snail Farming

Before starting a snail farming business in Nigeria, it is essential to understand the basic concepts of snail farming. Snails are hermaphrodites, which means they have both male and female reproductive organs. The breeding process involves mating, laying eggs, and hatching. The snail hatches from the egg as a miniature adult, and it takes about six months to reach maturity.

Snails are nocturnal animals that feed on a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, and leaves. They are usually active during the night and prefer a moist and cool environment. Snails can be reared in different ways, such as extensive, semi-intensive, or intensive methods.

Choosing the Right Species

One of the critical factors in snail farming is choosing the right species. There are several species of snails, but not all are suitable for farming. The most common snail species used for farming in Nigeria are the Achatina fulica, Achatina achatina, and Archachatina marginata. These species are the most commercially viable because of their size, weight, and high protein content.

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Setting Up Your Snail Farm

After choosing the right species, the next step is to set up the snail farm. A suitable location for snail farming should be cool, moist, and free from predators. Snails are delicate creatures and can easily be harmed by predators such as rats, birds, and snakes. Also, the soil should be rich in calcium since snails require calcium for shell development.

A good snail farm should have a soil depth of at least 10cm to allow the snails to burrow and lay eggs. The soil should also be well-drained to prevent waterlogging, which can cause the snails to drown. Additionally, a snail farm should have a fence or barrier to prevent the snails from escaping.

Feeding Your Snails

Feeding is an essential aspect of snail farming. Snails are vegetarians and feed on a variety of foods. The most common foods for snails are fruits and vegetables such as pawpaw, cucumber, banana, lettuce, and cabbage. However, it is crucial to avoid feeding snails salty or acidic foods, which can be harmful to their health.

It is also essential to provide the snails with a source of calcium, which is necessary for shell development. Calcium sources can come from eggshells, limestone, or bone meal. Snails require a regular supply of food and water, and it is essential to maintain a balance between the two.

Breeding and Hatching

In snail farming, breeding and hatching are crucial stages in the life cycle of the snails. Snails reach sexual maturity in about six months, and breeding can begin at this stage. Snails are hermaphrodites and can mate with any other snail.

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After mating, the snail lays its eggs in a hole in the soil. The snail can lay up to 100 eggs at a time, and the eggs hatch in about two weeks. The baby snails, also known as hatchlings, are born as miniature adults and are ready to eat and grow.

Maintaining Your Snail Farm

Maintaining a snail farm requires regular monitoring and care. Snails are sensitive to temperature and humidity changes, and it is essential to prevent extreme fluctuations. Also, it is crucial to monitor the snails for signs of disease or parasitic infestations. Common snail diseases include shell rot, respiratory infections, and bacterial infections.

Harvesting and Selling Your Snails

Snails can be harvested after six months of growth. The snails should be picked by hand and washed with clean water to remove dirt and slime. The snails can be sold fresh, frozen, or processed into products such as snail meatballs or sausages.

It is essential to establish a market for your products before starting a snail farming business. Snail meat is in high demand, and there is a ready market for it in Nigeria. You can sell your snails to restaurants, hotels, supermarkets, or directly to consumers.


Snail farming is a lucrative business that requires careful planning, monitoring, and care. Choosing the right species, setting up a suitable farm, feeding the snails, breeding and hatching, maintaining the farm, and selling the snails are essential steps for a successful snail farming business in Nigeria.


  1. How much does it cost to start a snail farming business in Nigeria?
    Starting a snail farming business in Nigeria can cost between N100,000 to N500,000, depending on the scale of the farm and the number of snails.

  2. How long does it take for snails to grow to market size?
    Snails take about six months to grow to market size.

  3. Can snail farming be done on a small scale?
    Yes, snail farming can be done on a small scale. It is a suitable business for individuals who want to start a side hustle or who have limited space.

  4. Can snails be farmed in the rainy season?
    Yes, snails can be farmed in the rainy season. However, it is crucial to prevent waterlogging, which can be harmful to the snails.

  5. How profitable is snail farming in Nigeria?
    Snail farming is a profitable business in Nigeria. A farmer can make a profit of between N500,000 to N5,000,000 from a snail farming business, depending on the scale of the farm and the market demand.

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